TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH SPACECRAFT
AIR FORCE AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH
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The Air Force has pursued research in areas of ground support and space cabin toxicology for the past 5 years. Comprehensive treatment of toxicological problems in both areas has revealed the necessity to define human tolerance limits to propellants and other toxic materials for various durations of exposure. Hence, an integrated input of propellant and space cabin material toxicology provides the basis for selection of habitable cabin atmospheres and materials selection criteria. Since such selection procedures are based on both biological and engineering considerations, one cannot disregard the materials selection aspect or evaluate closed system toxicology without consideration of source. The toxic materials in space system atmospheres are determined primarily by the qualitative and quantitative composition of space cabin equipment and the contribution of contaminants by the crew. Materials selection and analytical studies on gas-off products are key considerations in controlling toxic contaminants in a space cabin. Methods are described to determine the composition of cabin materials gas-off products and to biologically test these compounds for their toxicological effects. An attempt is made to correlate the roles of the materials analytical chemist and the toxicologist as a working team to provide meaningful and useful materials selection criteria.
- Unmanned Spacecraft
- Life Support Systems