Flavor Precursors in Meat
AMERICAN MEAT INST FOUNDATION CHICAGO United States
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The report describes investigations of the precursor substances in beef muscle tissue which produce the desirable odors and flavors of cooked beef, in order to identify them and to elucidate the mechanism by which flavor is produced. In earlier work, results showed that the dialyzable portion of a water extract of ground beef contained material which, when heated in fat, produced a broiled steak odor, and when boiled in water, produced a beef broth flavor and odor. The type of material involved in this fraction included polypeptides, glucose, phosphates and inosinic acid. The amino acid composition of the flavor fraction has been determined. Attempts to separate the phosphates for identification were unsuccessful because the isolated phosphate material could not be adsorbed on a Dowex-1 Cl- column, even when the pH of the adsorbing solution was adjusted to 9.5. Work with paper chromatography indicated that the phosphates were not glucose-1-phosphate or glucose-6-phosphate. Improved separation of the flavor constituents on SE-sephadex C-25 resulted in a more concentrated fraction of the odor producing material. This fraction produced a strong odor, but a subsequent amino acid analysis indicated that its amino acid content was greatly decreased, in relation to previous fractions. Work must be continued to determine the chemical nature of the fraction obtained from SE-Sephadex C-25 resin.