SYSTEMS APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION.
ILLINOIS UNIV URBANA TRAINING RESEARCH LAB
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This paper has outlined the nature of the systems approach as it relates to instruction. A general, but operational, model of instruction as a tutorial system also was presented. The schematics of an actual computerassisted instructional model known as SOCRATES have been described. The model is cybernetic. It also relates the learners characteristics to teaching decisions and in this sense it is idiographic. In addition, it performs the necessary functions for highly adaptive instruction with instructional objectives. As implemented in SOCRATES, this involves a three-process cycle. The first of these consists of the pretutorial decisions which match individual differences among learners. The second of these consists of tutorial decisions which are implementation of a specific set of rules. The third of these consists of the changing of tutorial decisions which involves the substitution of a set of rules whenever the previous set fails to produce the desired performance. Author