THE EFFECT OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE (CYTOXAN) ON THE BLADDER MUCOSA
OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS
Pagination or Media Count:
Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard which is linked by way of the nitrogen atom to a phosphoric-acidesteramide that allows for its relative inactivity in vitro. Through enzymatic activity in vivo there is a transformation of the inert cyclophosphamide to active cytotoxic derivatives which causes cytologic alteration and cell death to normal and tumor tissues. Its value as an antitumor agent has been in the treatment of patients with malignancies arising from hematopoietic tissues, malignant lymphomas, leukemias and carcinomas arising from the breast and ovary. One of the side effects reported following cyclophosphamide chemotherapy was the occasional manifestation of a sterile, hemorrhagic cystitis. Injections of cyclophosphamide into white male Wistar rats illicits a severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Electron microscopic examination of rat bladder transitional epithelial over various periods of time following injection, illustrated cytoplasmic degeneration, cellular exfoliation and cell death, nuclear dysplasia and subsequent epithelial regeneration.