Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics. Volume 6. Section 17. Ducts, Nozzles and Diffusers
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV LAUREL MD APPLIED PHYSICS LAB
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This Handbook section presents the basic techniques and related information needed for the control of duct flow in high-speed propulsion devices and in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels. The general mechanical and thermodynamic theory of steady flow in a duct is simplified as much as possible and is concisely reviewed. The effects of many flow parameters are analyzed by considering simple one-dimensional flows in which all but one of the independent variables are held constant. Although such assumptions are somewhat restrictive, it has been shown that their use in many practical problems provides reasonably accurate results. Non-steady, one-dimensional flows are discussed, and methods of solution for a great number of practical problems are outlined. Two- and three-dimensional flows are touched upon briefly. Generalized techniques are presented for the inclusion of viscous and heat-transfer effects by means of which boundary-layer correction may be made to profiles designed for potential flow. The general solutions of duct flow are subsequently applied to specific problems concerning the air intakes of jet engines, various propulsion nozzles, as well as nozzles and diffusers for typical supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels.
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