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ICE COVER OF THE BLACK SEA,
NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OFFICE WASHINGTON D C
Pagination or Media Count:
The study discusses the ice cover in various coastal areas of the Black Sea, emphasizing the northwestern sector. The following phases in ice formation are taken into consideration the appearance of ice, freeze-up, duration of ice period, its stability, ice thickness and forms, breakup, and the disappearance of ice in the spring. The study is based on observations carried out since the middle of the last century. Because the earlier observations have been sporadic and incomplete, and the data are sometimes even questionable, the author has re-evaluated the available information in the light of later systematic observations so as to make the study a reliable source of data concerning the ice thickness, duration and stability, especially in harbors and their immediate areas. To prove the soundness of his reasoning, the author often presents observational data by years, singling out the number of years on which the data are based, the severeness of winter, the maximum, minimum and average values of the data with respect to the duration, thickness and form of ice in various coastal sectors of the Black Sea by tenday periods, months, and winter seasons in various years. Author
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE