THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO NUCLEAR BLAST. 2. EFFECTS ON MICE LOCATED IN HEAVY CONCRETE SHELTERS
LOVELACE FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ALBUQUERQUE NM
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A cage containing 20 mice was placed in each of 12 underground shelters tested on shot Smoky in an attempt to assess biologically the inside environment of the shelters. Two samples of 20 mice each acted as controls. The structures, of French and German design, were located at ranges between 840 ft and 4320 ft from Ground Zero. Shot Smoky, a nuclear device, was exploded atop a 700-ft tower and had a yield of 43 kt. All but one group of mice were recovered on D 2 days. Aside from two samples placed in unrealistic locations, all animals were alive at recovery. With one exception, the peak pressures in the chambers that contained mice were insignificant, ranging from a fraction of 1 psi to 1.6 psi. The one high pressure of 14.4 psi did not kill any of the mice. According to the film-badge dosimeters, one group of mice received 190 r of gamma radiation. The others were exposed to 54 r of gamma or less. The mice were observed for a 60-day postshot period. The deaths that occurred were attributed to a Salmonella infection in the animal colony and not to radiation. Although the gamma radiation doses that most of the animal groups received were low, the levels that existed in the main chambers near the entry doors of the German shelters were over 100 r, a biologically significant dose. In contrast, the environment within two of the French shelters appeared to be quite acceptable.
- Weapons Effects (Biological)