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FALLOUT AND RADIOLOGICAL COUNTERMEASURES, VOLUME 1
STANFORD RESEARCH INST MENLO PARK CA
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The major purpose of this report is to outline and discuss these physical processes and the important parameters on which they depend. The data, data analyses, data correlation schemes, and discussions presented here are organized to emphasize size basic principles so that an appropriate methodology can be applied in evaluating the radiological consequences of nuclear war. An explosion of any kind, detonated near the surface of the earth, causes material to be thrown up or drawn into a chimney of hot rising gases and raised aloft. In a nuclear explosion, two important processes occur 1 radioactive elements, which are produced and vaporized in the process, condense into or on this material and 2 a large amount of non-radioactive material, rises thousands of feet into the air before the small particles begin to fall back. This permits the winds to scatter them over large areas of the earths surface. Thus, when the particles reach the surface of the earth they are far from their place of origin and contain, within or on their surface, radioactive elements. Whether they are solid particles produced from soil minerals, or liquid salt- containing particles produced from sea water, they are called fallout. The composition of fallout can be described in terms of two or three components. One is the inactive carrier this consists of the environmental material at the location of the detonation and is the major component in a near-surface detonation. The second component includes all the radioactive elements in the fallout.
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