VERTICAL MIGRATION OF PARTICLES IN FRONT OF A MOVING FREEZING PLANE
COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH
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A principle of particle segregation by freezing is presented. It is demonstrated experimentally by using a transparent freezing cabinet in which a sample of distilled water freezes from the bottom upward. In this way the freezing front line travels vertically and the particles are carried against gravity. By using the same material with different shapes glass beads and broken quartz or glass it is demonstrated that an important factor in particle migration is the shape of the particle or its contact area with the interface. By testing other materials with different shapes and sizes, it is demonstrated that another important factor is particle size and rate of freezing. It is suggested that, for determining frost behavior of soils in permafrost regions, freezing from the bottom upward is a more reliable test than freezing from the top down. The implication of this principle in engineering and studies of soil genesis in cold regions is emphasized.