THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND SHOCK-WAVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A MODEL VENUS ATMOSPHERE
RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA
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A model for the atmosphere of Venus is developed which may be useful for design studies of early atmospheric-entry vehicles and for wind-tunnel simulation application. This atmosphere, derived from many questionable assumptions and scant experimental data, consists of 85 carbon dioxide and 15 nitrogen by volume. The thermodynamic properties of the derived atmospheric composition are presented over the temperaturepressure range of 150 to 24,000 K and 110,000 to 100 atm. To further assist in aerodynamic entry calculations, normal-shock-wave characteristics of such an atmosphere are also presented. The fact that nitrogen is present has important consequences in the thermodynamic properties and electron concentrations over the full temperature and pressure range. The effects are of the order of the percentage of nitrogen addition to pure carbon dioxide. A graphical method of obtaining oblique-shock-wave data and a method of obtaining electron concentrations at low temperatures are included as appendixes.
- Atmospheric Physics