REVIEW OF THE EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTED SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BOUNDARY-LAYER TRANSITION
ADVISORY GROUP FOR AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PARIS (FRANCE)
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A discussion is presented on the transition phenomena associated with distributed roughness, a correlation of three-dimensional roughness effects at both subsonic and supersonic speeds, and the effect of laminar boundary-layer stability as influenced by heat transfer, pressure gradients, and boundary-layer control on the sensitivity of laminar flow to distributed roughness. Results indicate that the transition-triggering mechanism of three-dimensional type surface roughness appears to be the same at supersonic and subsonic speeds. In either case, a Reynolds number based on the height of the roughness and the local flow conditions at the top of the roughness can be used to predict with reasonable accuracy the height of three-dimensional roughness required to cause premature transition. Neither the three-dimensional roughness Reynolds number nor the lateral spread of turbulence behind the roughness is changed to any important extent by increasing the laminar boundary-layer stability to theoretically small disturbances. Therefore, for a given stream Mach number and Reynolds number, surface cooling, boundary-layer suction, or a favorable pressure gradient will, in the presence of three-dimensional roughness, promote rather than delay transition.
- Physical Chemistry
- Fluid Mechanics