FREEZE DRYING-THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND APPLICATION
ARMY BIOLOGICAL LABS FREDERICK MD
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The principles governing freeze-drying rates of heat and mass transfer have been reviewed and defined in practical terms. The various methods and resistances to heat transfer are discussed and practical use is made of the equations presented. Mass transfer through the various phase changes is discussed. Theoretical discussions of the mode of mass transfer at each step and suitable relationships are developed which describe the limiting conditions for the mass transfer rates. By use of the over-all mass transfer equations, rates of drying and total times required may be determined. Sample calculations illustrating the use of the relationships and theoretical considerations are included.
- Physical Chemistry