CRATERING EFFECTS IN SAND AND LOESS SOIL, SURFACE WAVES AND AIR-BLAST MEASUREMENTS FOR SCALED WATER DEPTHS OF 60 AND 100 FT
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MISS
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Plots of apparent crater depth vs charge weight showed that under water charge position has a moderate effect on crater depth for a sand bottom, particularly for the 100-ft scaled water depth. Charges below the bottom produced crater widths averaging 1.15 the width of comparable craters of charges positioned at the bottom for both 60- and 100-ft depths. Significant crater lips were formed in eac scaled water depth for charges below below and at the bottom. For loess bottoms, plots of the crater depth vs charge height indicated a marked effect of the charge position on crater depth. Crater depths for charges positioned at a scaled depth of 90 ft below the bottom were about 1.3 the depths of comparable craters for bottom-positioned charges. Below-bottom charges produced crater widths about 1.15 greater than those from bottom-positioned charges. Significant crater lips were formed in each scaled depth for both charges in the 20 KT range detonated 60 to 100 ft below the water surface would cause little air-blast damage beyond a 3500-ft radius. Damage radii also appeared to be reduced by deeper detonations. The proximity of the bottom in a 100-ft depth blast had no apparent effect on air-blast pressures.