Accession Number : ADA625385


Title :   Understanding the Effects of Blast Wave on the Intracranial Pressure and Traumatic Brain Injury in Rodents and Humans Using Experimental Shock Tube and Numerical Simulations


Descriptive Note : Doctoral thesis


Corporate Author : NEBRASKA UNIV LINCOLN


Personal Author(s) : Sundaramurthy, Aravind


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a625385.pdf


Report Date : Jul 2014


Pagination or Media Count : 201


Abstract : Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) has been designated as the signature injury to warfighters in the recent military conflicts. In the past decade, conflicts in Iraq (operation Iraqi freedom) and Afghanistan (operation enduring freedom) as well as the increasing burden of the terrorism around the world resulted in an increased number of cases with blast Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI). Recently, a lot of research has been done to study the neurological and neurochemical degenerations resulting from BINT using animal models especially rat models. However, it is not clear how and whether the biological outcomes from animal models can be translated to humans; this work is aimed to address this issue. In this dissertation, the criteria for achieving a standardized methodology to produce shock blast waves are identified. Firstly, shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) such as breech length, type of gas and membrane thickness were used for controlling and producing desired blast waves by manipulating shock wave parameters (SWPs). Secondly, using a surrogate head model, the data from the laboratory experiments were compared with experimental data obtained from the field explosions data to show the validity of the laboratory experiments. Finally, effect of test section location on the fidelity of the rat model in simulating field conditions was studied. Through these steps a standardized and accurate method of replicating the field blast was established. Using the standardized methodology to model blast waves, the intracranial pressure for various incident pressures on the rat model was studied. Furthermore, to understand the mechanisms of loading and to study the influence of field variables, a finite element model of rat along with the simple ellipsoidal model was developed.


Descriptors :   *BLAST WAVES , *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES , COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION , EXPERIMENTAL DATA , EXPLOSIONS , EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY) , FIELD CONDITIONS , FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS , GAS COMPRESSORS , HUMANS , LABORATORY TESTS , MEMBRANES(BIOLOGY) , MILITARY MEDICINE , NERVE CELLS , NEUROLOGY , NEUROPHYSIOLOGY , PRESSURE , RODENTS , SCALING FACTOR , SHOCK TUBES , SHOCK WAVES , SKULL , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS , THESES


Subject Categories : Stress Physiology
      Weapons Effects(biological)
      Statistics and Probability
      Explosions


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE