Accession Number : ADA624621


Title :   Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma


Descriptive Note : Manuscript


Corporate Author : PENNSYLVANIA UNIV PHILADELPHIA


Personal Author(s) : Wood, Garrett W ; Panzer, M B ; Cox, C A ; Bass, C R


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a624621.pdf


Report Date : 27 Aug 2015


Pagination or Media Count : 321


Abstract : Between October 2001 and May 2012 approximately 70% of U.S. military personnel killed in action and 75% wounded in action were the direct result of exposure to an explosion. As of 2008, it was estimated that nearly 20% of all Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans had sustained some form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Blast exposure is also a civilian problem due to widespread availability of explosives and the increased usage of explosives in terrorist attacks on civilians. Before 2005, blast injury research focused on the pulmonary system and the other air-containing organs which have been shown to be susceptible to blast overpressure injury. A shift in injury pattern during recent conflicts is characterized by decreased incidence of pulmonary injuries relative to TBI thought to be associated with blast exposure. This increase in observation of blast TBI has resulted in a large research effort to understand mechanisms and thresholds. However, due to the relatively sudden shift, much of this research is being conducted without a proper understanding and consideration of blast mechanics and interspecies scaling effects.


Descriptors :   *MILITARY PERSONNEL , *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES , BIOMECHANICS , BLAST WAVES , EXPERIMENTAL DATA , EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN , EXPLOSIVES , EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY) , IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES , MILITARY MEDICINE , NEUROSCIENCE , ORGANS(ANATOMY) , PULMONARY FUNCTION , SCALING FACTOR , SHOCK TESTS , THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY) , TISSUES(BIOLOGY) , TRAUMA


Subject Categories : Stress Physiology
      Weapons Effects(biological)
      Military Forces and Organizations
      Biomedical Instrumentation and Bioengineering


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE