Accession Number : ADA602699


Title :   Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy


Descriptive Note : Congressional rept.


Corporate Author : LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE


Personal Author(s) : Katzman, Kenneth


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a602699.pdf


Report Date : 24 Mar 2014


Pagination or Media Count : 41


Abstract : The uprising against Bahrain s Al Khalifa royal family that began in Bahrain on February 14, 2011, amidst other regional uprisings, has not toppled Bahrain s regime or achieved the goals of the mostly Shiite opposition to establish a constitutional monarchy. Demonstrations have continued, although smaller and less frequent since mid-2013, as Bahrain s Shiites seek to bring pressure to bear on the Sunni-dominated government to increase Shiite political influence and rights. The government has offered relatively modest concessions to date, while continuing to arrest and intimidate Shiite leaders. There are signs the opposition is radicalizing bombings and other violent tactics against security officials have become more frequent over the past years. The crisis has demonstrated that the grievances of the Shiite majority over the distribution of power and economic opportunities were not satisfied by the modest reforms during 1999-2010. The government and opposition have attempted to resolve the unrest through two national dialogues (July 2011 and February to December 2013), but with limited results. A pivotal report by a government-appointed Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), released November 23, 2011, was critical of the government s actions against the unrest, but outside human rights groups assessed that overall implementation of the 26 BICI recommendations has been modest. Still, both sides have left the door open to further dialogue and engagement. The Obama Administration has not called for an end to the Al Khalifa regime, but it has criticized its use of repressive measures, urged compromise and dialogue, and halted the sale of some arms that the government could potentially use against protesters. The U.S. criticism and arms sales holds have angered some Al Khalifa officials but also dissatisfied the opposition, which asserts that the United States is downplaying regime abuses in order to protect its extensive security relationship with Bahrain.


Descriptors :   *BAHRAIN , *BOMBING , *DEMONSTRATIONS , *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN) , *INTERNATIONAL POLITICS , *INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS , *UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT , ECONOMICS , LEADERSHIP , POLICIES , SECURITY


Subject Categories : Government and Political Science


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE