Accession Number : ADA596654


Title :   Biological Responses in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke and Middle East Sand (Dust)


Descriptive Note : Research for 6 Jan 2009-8 Jan 2010


Corporate Author : NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV AT RALEIGH SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


Personal Author(s) : Dorman, David C ; Mokashi, Vishwesh ; Wagner, Dean J ; Olabisi, Ayodele O ; Wong, Brian A ; Moss, Owen R ; Centeno, Jose A ; Guandalini, Gustavo ; Jackson, David A ; Dennis, William E


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a596654.pdf


Report Date : Jan 2012


Pagination or Media Count : 17


Abstract : Respiratory symptoms are frequently reported in personnel deployed to the Middle East. This project characterized the respiratory toxicity of inhaled Iraqi sand (IS). Adult rats underwent a 6-wk inhalation to air or mainstream cigarette smoke (MSCS) (3h/d, 5d/wk) that included exposure to IS or crystalline silica (1 mg/m3, 19h/d, 7d/wk) or air during the last w weeks. Assessments included motor activity, whole-body plethysmography, cytological and biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung metal burden, nasal and lung pathology and changes in lung protein and gene expression. A number of metals including nickel, manganese, and vanadium concentrations wee seen in IS-exposed rats, suggesting that several metals present in IS are bioavailable. Rats exposed to IS only developed mild inflammation in the anterior nose and lung. Silica inhalation was associated with some pulmonary responses that were not seen in IS-exposed rats, such as mild laryngeal and tracheal inflammation, mild tracheal epithelial hyperplasia, and elevated lung silica concentrations. MSCS inhalation with or without co-exposure to MSCS and silica has more widespread airway lesions when compared with rats exposed to MSCS only. Silica-exposed rats had more robust pulmonary gene expression and proteomic responses than that seen in IS-exposed rat. Our studies show that the respiratory toxicity of IS is qualitatively similar to or less than that seen following short-term silica exposure.


Descriptors :   *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY) , *PATHOLOGY , *RESPIRATORY SYSTEM , *TOBACCO SMOKING , *TOXICITY , BIOCHEMISTRY , CLEANING , CRYSTALS , CYTOLOGY , DEPLOYMENT , DYSPLASIA , EPITHELIUM , GENES , IN VITRO ANALYSIS , IN VIVO ANALYSIS , INFLAMMATION , INHALATION , LUNG , MIDDLE EAST , MOTOR REACTIONS , NANOPARTICLES , PLETHYSMOGRAPHY , RESPONSE(BIOLOGY) , SHORT RANGE(TIME) , SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS , SILICON DIOXIDE , TRACHEA , VANADIUM


Subject Categories : Medicine and Medical Research
      Stress Physiology
      Toxicology


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE