Accession Number : ADA588783


Title :   Social Media Influencing C2 in Underdeveloped and Degraded Operational Environments


Descriptive Note : Conference paper


Corporate Author : EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH INC MCLEAN VA


Personal Author(s) : Hayes, Margaret D ; Manso, Barbara ; Hayes, Richard E ; Manso, Marco


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a588783.pdf


Report Date : Jun 2013


Pagination or Media Count : 54


Abstract : The ubiquity of online and mobile technologies across the World and their rapid adoption by citizens in the face of emergencies and crises is rapidly changing the C2 operational environment for responses to natural disasters, terrorist threats, and social upheavals. Equipped with sophisticated smartphones, citizens embrace their role as the first in situ sensors, displaying an active producer-consumer behavior by capturing high-definition images and videos, sharing the contents with others, and commenting on information posted by others. Similarly, when information is scarce, social media have been elected by citizens as valuable instruments for identifying and locating victims, assisting search and rescue operations, accessing crisis-related information on open community-based repositories, and influencing specific cliques and groups in society, especially in the organization and coordination of mob protests. This new digital social arena has been brought to C2 operational environments and organizations are under pressure to understand and cope with this new reality. In this paper, we analyze documented case studies of emergency and crisis events characterized by underdeveloped and degraded operational environments that involved strong military or security-related intervention and generated significant social media dynamics. Ranging from natural disasters to terrorist events to social turmoil and upheavals, these cases highlight social media as a fundamental information source in the support of actionable Intelligence and effective connecting and collaboration.


Descriptors :   *CIVILIAN POPULATION , *COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS , *DISASTERS , *EMERGENCIES , *INFORMATION EXCHANGE , *INTERNET , *ONLINE COMMUNITIES , *RESPONSE , *TERRORISM , CASE STUDIES , CRISIS MANAGEMENT , EARTHQUAKES , ELECTRONIC MAIL , EPIDEMICS , EUROPE , FIRST RESPONDERS , FLOODS , FOREST FIRES , HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE , HURRICANES , INTEROPERABILITY , MOBILE COMPUTING , POLITICAL REVOLUTION , SARS , SYMPOSIA , TSUNAMIS , UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT


Subject Categories : Computer Systems
      Civil Defense
      Unconventional Warfare
      Command, Control and Communications Systems


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE