Accession Number : ADA586153


Title :   Combating Transnational Organized Crime: Strategies and Metrics for the Threat


Corporate Author : NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV FORT MCNAIR DC CENTER FOR TECHNOLOGY AND NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY


Personal Author(s) : Musa, Samuel


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a586153.pdf


Report Date : May 2012


Pagination or Media Count : 22


Abstract : Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) refers to those individuals and organizations that operate transnationally for obtaining power and monetary gains by illegal means. TOC includes drug trafficking, weapons smuggling, intellectual property theft, cybercrime, and human smuggling operations. TOC networks pose a growing threat to national and international security. These criminal networks often penetrate state institutions, especially law enforcement, resulting in weak governance and significant corruption. They threaten the respective economies and damage the world financial system. The World Bank estimates that the TOC spends $1 trillion per year to bribe public officials. Terrorists and insurgents are using the TOC networks to generate additional funding and leveraging logistical support. The Department of Justice (DoJ) reported that 29 of 63 organizations in its fiscal year (FY) 2010 Consolidated Priority Organization Target list (CPOT), which includes the major drug trafficking organizations, were involved with terrorist groups. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) claims that 19 foreign terrorist organizations have ties with drug trafficking organizations. Drug trafficking has significantly expanded within Central and Southern America as drugs move north to the United States across the Mexican border. Latin American cartels are expanding their markets and exploiting criminal organizations in West Africa to move cocaine into Western Europe and the Middle East. Afghan drug trafficking organizations, in collaboration with illicit trafficking groups in West Africa, smuggle heroin into Europe and to a lesser degree, into the United States. Furthermore, trafficking groups in Russia, China, Italy, and the Balkans are establishing ties to drug producers to develop their own distribution networks and markets.


Descriptors :   *CRIMES , *CYBERTERRORISM , *DRUG SMUGGLING , *LAW ENFORCEMENT , *THEFT , DISTRIBUTION , DRUGS , EUROPE , GLOBAL , HUMANS , INSURGENCY , INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS , LOGISTICS SUPPORT , MARKETING , NETWORKS , ORGANIZATIONS , POLICIES , POWER , SECURITY , SMUGGLING , STRATEGY , TERRORISTS , THREATS , UNITED STATES


Subject Categories : Sociology and Law


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE