Accession Number : ADA583880


Title :   The Engine of Change: The Evolution of Culture into the Army Planning Process


Descriptive Note : Monograph


Corporate Author : ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES


Personal Author(s) : Herrman, John J


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a583880.pdf


Report Date : 23 May 2013


Pagination or Media Count : 56


Abstract : The human domain and culture have always been a consideration in military operations. Throughout the Army's history, commanders have learned this aspect of war, adapting and integrating their operational plans to address various disparities in cultural norms. Yet during the period after Vietnam, the United States Army as an institution neither recognized nor prepared itself to address these considerations. Instead it focused on preparing for state-on-state, high intensity warfare. After the Cold War, however, the Army found itself unprepared for the human domain in conflicts such as military operations other than war (MOOTW) and low intensity conflicts (LIC). The chasm between the need to understand the human domain and capability was exacerbated at the dawn of the 21st century as the Army found itself entrenched in wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. By this point, the U.S. Congress demanded that the military take action to become more culturally astute. The Army began to adapt by augmenting its force structure with cultural experts to address its immediate needs to understand the cultures of Afghanistan and Iraq. The publication of FM 3-24 changed the attitude of the Army towards cultural understanding. The U.S. Congress continued its push for cultural understanding in the military, and this time the Army was ready to comply.


Descriptors :   *ARMY PLANNING , *ARMY TRAINING , *CROSS CULTURE(SOCIOLOGY) , *CULTURAL DIFFERENCES , *EVOLUTION(GENERAL) , *MILITARY DOCTRINE , AFGHANISTAN CONFLICT , CONGRESS , COUNTERINSURGENCY , IRAQI WAR , JAPAN , LESSONS LEARNED , LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT , MEXICO , MILITARY HISTORY , OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR , PHILIPPINES , VIETNAM WAR


Subject Categories : Government and Political Science
      Sociology and Law
      Humanities and History
      Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE