Accession Number : ADA560390


Title :   Israel: Background and U.S. Relations


Descriptive Note : Congressional rept.


Corporate Author : LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE


Personal Author(s) : Zanotti, Jim


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a560390.pdf


Report Date : 29 Feb 2012


Pagination or Media Count : 51


Abstract : U.S.-Israel defense, diplomatic, and economic cooperation has been close for decades. U.S. policymakers often consider Israel's security as they make policy choices in the region. Israel has relied on U.S. support for its defense posture. Congress provides active oversight of the executive branch's dealings with Israel. Some Members of Congress oppose what they perceive as insufficiently critical U.S. support of Israel. Other Members of Congress have criticized actions by the Obama Administration and previous U.S. administrations for being insufficiently supportive of Israel, and occasionally have authorized and appropriated funding for programs benefitting Israel at a level exceeding that requested by the executive branch. During 2011, Israel did not face any conventional military attacks, but its security perceptions changed as several surrounding Arab countries experienced political upheavals. Israel has few means of influencing political outcomes in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, or Jordan, but developments in those states may significantly affect Israeli security. Israelis have expressed concern that Islamist governments hostile to Israel and the West could gain power in countries undergoing transitions. Political change in the Arab world and continuing stalemate in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process have partly driven the PLO's pursuit of greater international recognition of Palestinian statehood. Those factors may also be increasing the prospect of Hamas's integration into Palestinian organs of governance, despite ongoing tensions between Hamas and rival faction Fatah. These developments and Israeli reactions to them have reinforced and perhaps deepened the political impasse on core issues of Israeli-Palestinian conflict -- security parameters, borders, Jewish settlements, water rights, Palestinian refugees, and the status of Jerusalem. Meanwhile, Israeli leaders have renewed their calls for urgent international action against Iran's nuclear program.


Descriptors :   *FOREIGN POLICY , *GEOPOLITICS , *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN) , *INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS , *ISRAEL , *POLITICAL ALLIANCES , *UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT , AGREEMENTS , CIVIL DISTURBANCES , DEMOCRACY , DEMOGRAPHY , EGYPT , ESPIONAGE , FOREIGN AID , FOREIGN MILITARY SALES , HISTORY , INSTABILITY , IRAN , ISRAELIS , JORDAN , LEBANON , NEGOTIATIONS , NUCLEAR WEAPONS , PALESTINIANS , POLITICAL PARTIES , SYRIA , TURKEY


Subject Categories : Government and Political Science


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE