Accession Number : ADA555982


Title :   Low HAP/VOC Compliant Resins for Military Applications


Descriptive Note : Final rept. 1 Jan 2006-1 Nov 2010


Corporate Author : ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD


Personal Author(s) : La Scala, John ; Boyd, S ; Andrews, K ; Glodek, T ; Lochner, C ; Myers, P ; Levine, F ; De Bonis, D ; Hayes, R ; Sands, J


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555982.pdf


Report Date : Sep 2011


Pagination or Media Count : 979


Abstract : Liquid resins used for molding composite structures are a significant source of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. One method of reducing styrene emissions from vinyl ester (VE) resins is to replace some or all of the styrene with fatty acid-based monomers. Fatty acid monomers are ideal candidates because they are inexpensive, have low volatilities, and promote global sustainability because they are derived from renewable resources. This patented technology allows for the formulation of high performance composite resins with no more than 25 wt% styrene, which is a 25-50% reduction in HAP emissions vs. commercial VE resins. This work validated the commercially produced low HAP vinyl ester resins from Applied Poleramics, Inc. for use in DoD composite structures. Tests have shown that the established resin formulations met the property requirements, including viscosity, glass transition temperature, modulus, strength, short beam shear strength, and fracture toughness. Furthermore the low HAP fatty acid composites have improved weatherability relative to the baseline vinyl ester composites. The Army has demonstrated and validated the use of these HMMWV transmission container, M35A3 hood, and M939 hood under laboratory testing and field conditions. The Air Force has demonstrated the production of an F-22 canopy cover, T-38 dorsal cover, and rapid prototyping splash molds. The F-22 canopy cover and splash molds were completely validated, but the T-38 dorsal cover was only validated at the laboratory level. MCM rudders were successfully demonstrated and were demonstrated at production level and validated at the laboratory level. An economic analysis has shown that these resins will cost an additional $0.1-1.20/lb (depending on manufacturing scale) more than baseline resins. However, these resins they reduce life cycle cost by more than $1.20/lb making them economically feasible.


Descriptors :   *COMPOSITE MATERIALS , *ESTERS , *POLYMERS , *VINYL PLASTICS , AIR FORCE , AIR POLLUTION , ARMY , BASE LINES , COMMERCE , COMPOSITE STRUCTURES , CONTAINERS , COSTS , ECONOMIC ANALYSIS , ELASTIC PROPERTIES , FATS , FATTY ACIDS , FIELD CONDITIONS , FORMULATIONS , FRACTURE(MECHANICS) , GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE , GLOBAL , LABORATORIES , LABORATORY TESTS , LIFE CYCLE COSTS , LIQUIDS , MANUFACTURING , MILITARY APPLICATIONS , MOLDINGS , MONOMERS , PRODUCTION , REQUIREMENTS , RESOURCES , RUDDERS , SCALE , SHEAR STRENGTH , SOURCES , STRENGTH(GENERAL) , STYRENES , TOUGHNESS


Subject Categories : Organic Chemistry
      Laminates and Composite Materials


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE