Accession Number : ADA539573


Title :   Comparison of Human and Guinea Pig Acetylcholinesterase Sequences and Rates of Oxime-Assisted Reactivation


Descriptive Note : Journal article


Corporate Author : ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD


Personal Author(s) : Cadieux, C L ; Broomfield, Clarence A ; Kirkpatrick, Melanie G ; Kazanski, Meghan E ; Lenz, David E ; Cerasoli, Douglas M


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a539573.pdf


Report Date : Jan 2010


Pagination or Media Count : 6


Abstract : Poisoning via organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents occurs when the OP binds and inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) which transmits signals between nerves and several key somatic regions. When AChE is inhibited, the signal initiated by ACh is not properly terminated. Excessive levels of ACh result in a cholinergic crisis, and in severe cases can lead to death. Current treatments for OP poisoning involve the administration of atropine, which blocks ACh receptors, and oximes, which reactivate AChE after inhibition. Efforts to improve the safety, efficacy, and broad spectrum utility of these treatments are ongoing and usually require the use of appropriate animal model systems. For OP poisoning, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a commonly used animal model because guinea pigs more closely mirror primate susceptibility to OP poisoning than do other animals such as rats and mice. This is most likely because among rodents and other small mammals, guinea pigs have a very low relative concentration of serum carboxylesterase, an enzyme known to bind OPs in vitro and to act as an endogenous bioscavenger in vivo. Although guinea pigs historically have been used to test OP poisoning therapies, it has been found recently that guinea pig AChE is substantially more resistant to oxime-mediated reactivation than human AChE. To examine the molecular basis for this difference, we reverse transcribed mRNA encoding guinea pig AChE, amplified the resulting cDNA, and sequenced this product. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of guinea pig AChE were then compared to the human version. Several amino acid differences were noted, and the predicted locations of these differences were mapped onto a structural model of human AChE. To examine directly how these differences affect oxime-mediate reactivation of AChE were determined.


Descriptors :   *NERVE AGENTS , *ORGANOPHOSPHATES , *ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE , *METABOLISM , *ENZYMES , PAIN , BLOOD SERUM , INHIBITION , DEATH , IN VIVO ANALYSIS , ESTERASES , RECEPTOR SITES(PHYSIOLOGY) , AMINO ACIDS , CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS , ATROPINE , GUINEA PIGS , OXIMES , ACETYLCHOLINE , NUCLEOTIDES , CARBOXYL RADICALS , PRIMATES , POISONING , THERAPY , IN VITRO ANALYSIS , MAMMALS , NEUROTRANSMITTERS


Subject Categories : Biochemistry
      Organic Chemistry
      Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE