Accession Number : ADA506770


Title :   Doping Asymmetry Problem in ZnO: Current Status and Outlook. A Review of Experimental and Theoretical Efforts Focused on Achieving P-Type ZnO Suitable for Light-Emitting Optoelectronic Devices for the Blue/Ultraviolet Spectral Range


Corporate Author : VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIV RICHMOND


Personal Author(s) : Avrutin, Vitaliy ; Silversmith, Donald ; Morkoc, Hadis


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a506770.pdf


Report Date : 24 Apr 2009


Pagination or Media Count : 12


Abstract : ZnO has gained considerable interest recently as a promising material for a variety of applications. To a large extent, the renewed interest in ZnO is fueled by its wide direct band gap (3.3 eV at room temperature) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) making this material, when alloyed with e.g. Cd and Mg, especially attractive for light emitters in the blue/UV spectral region. Unfortunately, as with other wide-gap semiconductors, ZnO suffers from the doping asymmetry problem, in that the n-type conductivity can be obtained rather easily, but p-type doping proved to be a formidable challenge. This doping asymmetry problem (also dubbed as the p-type problem in ZnO) is preventing applications of ZnO in light-emitting diodes and potential laser diodes. In this article, we provide a critical review of the current experimental efforts focused on achieving p-type ZnO and discuss the proposed approaches which could possibly be used to overcome the p-type problem.


Descriptors :   *ZINC OXIDES , *P TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS , POINT DEFECTS , IMPURITIES , NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY , BAND GAPS , N TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS , LIGHT EMITTING DIODES , EXCITONS , ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA , DIODE LASERS , CONDUCTIVITY , ELECTROOPTICS , DOPING


Subject Categories : Inorganic Chemistry
      Electrical and Electronic Equipment
      Lasers and Masers


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE