Accession Number : ADA501361


Title :   The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)


Descriptive Note : Congressional rept.


Corporate Author : LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE


Personal Author(s) : Katzman, Kenneth


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a501361.pdf


Report Date : 04 Jun 2009


Pagination or Media Count : 13


Abstract : International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program has increased the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond 4.1 million barrels per day. However, some firms continue to see opportunity in Iran, particularly companies in Asia that appear eager to fill the void left by major European and American firms and to line up steady supplies of Iranian oil and gas. The formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran began in 1996 with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA). No firms have been sanctioned under it, and the precise effects of that law on energy investment in Iran -- as separate from other factors affecting international firms' decisions on whether to invest in Iran -- has been unclear. In the 110th Congress, two bills passed the House (H.R. 1400 and H.R. 7112) that would add several ISA provisions. As many in Congress express concern about the reticence of U.S. allies, of Russia, and of China, to impose very strict economic sanctions on Iran, versions or variations of these bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress. For example, H.R. 2194, H.R. 1985, and S. 908 would include as ISA violations selling refined gasoline to Iran, providing shipping insurance or other services to deliver gasoline to Iran, or supplying equipment to or performing the construction of oil refineries in Iran. H.R. 2192 and S. 908 would also expand the menu of available sanctions against violators. For more on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses, by Kenneth Katzman.


Descriptors :   *INVESTMENTS , *IRAN , *LEGISLATION , *PETROLEUM INDUSTRY , *FOREIGN , *ECONOMIC SANCTIONS , *CORPORATIONS , NEGOTIATIONS , GASOLINE , REFINERIES , OIL FIELDS , NATURAL GAS , CRUDE OIL , INFRASTRUCTURE , DETERIORATION , INTERNATIONAL TRADE , PIPELINES , INDUSTRIAL MODERNIZATION , AGING(MATERIALS) , BANKING , NUCLEAR WEAPONS , UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT


Subject Categories : Economics and Cost Analysis
      Government and Political Science
      Sociology and Law
      Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy
      Fuels


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE