Accession Number : ADA494411


Title :   Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process


Descriptive Note : Monograph


Corporate Author : ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES


Personal Author(s) : Ngo, Danielle J


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a494411.pdf


Report Date : 22 May 2008


Pagination or Media Count : 51


Abstract : For a fractured society to forge a lasting, stable peace, it requires not only a holistic approach to amnesty, reintegration, and reconciliation (AR2), but also a balance among three critical societal dimensions: political, security, and economic. If the process of AR2 is not complete or there is an imbalance in the system, the fractured society will either remain at an unstable peace, or move to crisis or possibly war. This study examines the societal dimensions of the AR2 process by using a case study methodology. The study attempts to understand why two countries -- Venezuela and Colombia -- that have common ancestries and a similar history of authoritarian government, economic stagnation, and social injustice follow different paths towards conflict resolution. The author classifies both Venezuela and Colombia as societies in an unstable peace. Although Venezuela has become economically successful through the sale of its petroleum, economic wealth alone cannot stabilize a society. For Venezuela to secure a stable peace, it must balance its societal dimension by diversifying its economic base; continuing to be a politically open, democratic nation; and addressing the concerns of its disenfranchised population. The AR2 process in Colombia has been a long and violent journey that has yet to be resolved. Colombia's instability mainly stems from the continuing insurgency within its borders and the narco-trafficking cartel. For Colombia to balance these dimensions, it must continue its current security strategy but not neglect the economic dimension and the poor of its country. It must also continue paramilitary reintegration while addressing corruption and human rights offenses. That Colombia and Venezuela border one another and are economically dependent on one other has consequences for their AR2 process. A change to a dimension in one country may affect the dimensions in both countries in an unpredictable way.


Descriptors :   *STABILIZATION , *NATIONAL SECURITY , *VENEZUELA , *COLOMBIA , *INSTABILITY , *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN) , *ECONOMICS , DRUG SMUGGLING , INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS , PARAMILITARY FORCES , INSURGENCY , PETROLEUM PRODUCTS , CRIMINAL CORRUPTION , BALANCE , CASE STUDIES , NARCOTICS , SOCIAL WELFARE , PEACETIME , DEMOCRACY


Subject Categories : Economics and Cost Analysis
      Government and Political Science
      Sociology and Law


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE