Accession Number : ADA489367


Title :   Exertional Heat Illness and Hyponatremia: An Epidemiological Prospective


Descriptive Note : Journal article


Corporate Author : ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA THERMAL AND MOUNTAIN MEDICINE DIVISION


Personal Author(s) : Carter, III, Robert


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a489367.pdf


Report Date : Jan 2008


Pagination or Media Count : 9


Abstract : While performing demanding physical activity for long durations, fluid and electrolyte imbalance is common in athletes, military personnel, and recreational hikers. The military and civilian communities have introduced extensive heat mitigation measures to manage heat strain and reduce the risk of serious exertional heat illnesses (EHI). These heat mitigation measures include fluid and electrolyte replacement guidelines, vigilance, and identifying high-risk individuals. Despite these measures, exercise in hot weather continues to result in preventable injuries and deaths in young, healthy individuals. With existing emphasis on appropriate fluid intake during exercise for the avoidance of dehydration, heat illness, and associated performance decrements, there has been a subsequent increase in reported exertional hyponatremia (HYPO) cases related to excessive water intake, elevated sweating rates, excessive sodium losses in sweat, and inadequate sodium intake in soldiers (1), athletes (2,3,4), and recreational hikers (5,6). The primary purpose of this article is to systemically examine the epidemiological literature of fluid and electrolyte imbalances that occur during physical activity. The secondary purpose of this article is to examine signs and symptoms of HYPO and EHI cases from the literature (1,2,5,7Y26) and the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD). While it is acknowledged that the populations at risk for HYPO and EHI may differ, reasonable comparisons are made by examining incidence rates to better understand relative magnitude of each condition. It has been reported that these two conditions have several overlapping clinical features, which has led to misdiagnosis in some rare cases. This article is not intended to persuade the reader of the relative importance of either condition.


Descriptors :   *CLINICAL MEDICINE , *ILLNESS , *HEAT STRESS(PHYSIOLOGY) , *EPIDEMIOLOGY , ARMY PERSONNEL , PHYSICAL PROPERTIES , WATER , SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS , SODIUM , MEDICINE , HOT WEATHER , WOUNDS AND INJURIES , CIVILIAN POPULATION , ELECTROLYTES , ORAL INTAKE , DEHYDRATION , INTAKE VALVES , COMMUNITIES , ARMY RESEARCH , MILITARY PERSONNEL , DATA BASES , REPRINTS


Subject Categories : Medicine and Medical Research
      Stress Physiology


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE