Accession Number : ADA474184


Title :   Historical Review of Atomic Frequency Standards Used in Space Systems - 10 Year Update


Descriptive Note : Conference paper


Corporate Author : BOEING CORP LOS ANGELES CA SATELLITE DEVELOPMENT CENTER


Personal Author(s) : Mallette, Leo A ; Rochat, Pascal ; White, Joseph


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a474184.pdf


Report Date : 01 Jan 2007


Pagination or Media Count : 13


Abstract : A 1996 paper estimated that the total number of space-borne atomic frequency standards (AFS) is no more than several hundred [1, p. 24]. The number of atomic frequency standards in space was dominated by the GPS, GLONASS, and Milstar satellite constellations. In this paper, we present an update to the historical review of the AFSs used in space systems. We will briefly review the systems existing in 1996, and add the newer systems (Galileo, GPS IIR and IIF, GLONASS-M, Cassini-Huygens, AEHF, and QZSS) and potential space systems (PARCS, PHARAO, Beidou) using atomic frequency standards. We have estimated that there have been a total of 452 atomic frequency standards launched into orbit for use on communications and scientific payloads. We conclude the paper with a review of the 1996 predictions for future AFSs and discuss the future as seen in 2006.


Descriptors :   *NAVIGATION SATELLITES , *FREQUENCY STANDARDS , *ATOMIC CLOCKS , SYMPOSIA , SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS , SPACE SYSTEMS , GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


Subject Categories : Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods
      Unmanned Spacecraft
      Navigation and Guidance


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE