Accession Number : ADA470675


Title :   Religion and Other Cultural Variables in Modern Operational Environments


Descriptive Note : Monograph


Corporate Author : ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES


Personal Author(s) : Hoskins, Brant D


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a470675.pdf


Report Date : 01 May 2007


Pagination or Media Count : 67


Abstract : Accounting for religion and other cultural aspects of the operational environment continues to be a challenge for the U.S. military. The basis for this is scientific rationalism and the U.S. cultural preference to separate matters of government from matters of faith and culture. This monograph proposes that this American mindset inhibits the development of doctrine that addresses these factors; therefore, it may prevent the understanding of future operational environments. According to The Joint Operational Environment (JOE), The World through 2030 and Beyond, future conflicts are likely to be dominated by religious and cultural factors. In response to the first question, Are religious and cultural variables relevant in modern operational environments?, the author presents case studies of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the Soviet-Afghan War, and U.S. involvement in Iraq. In response to the second question, How well does U.S. doctrine account for these variables?, the author examines pre-Iraqi War operations and intelligence doctrine to show that military doctrine did not adequately address these areas. In response to the third question, What steps are necessary to account for religious and cultural factors in future operational environments?, the author surveyed several theorists from both inside and outside the military establishment for ideas on how to incorporate these factors in future operational environments. The final portion of the monograph discusses recommendations that may increase future understanding of religious and cultural factors: an institutional acknowledgement of religion and other cultural factors as key in modern operational environments, modifications to joint and service doctrine to account for these factors, and the establishment of a cultural contact center staffed by theologians and social science specialists who can provide timely and practical input on these factors to military forces or other governmental agencies.


Descriptors :   *WARFARE , *LESSONS LEARNED , *MILITARY DOCTRINE , *CONFLICT , *RELIGION , *CULTURE , *CASE STUDIES , MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES) , USSR , IRAQI WAR , ISRAELIS , INSURGENCY , REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY) , AFGHANISTAN , DEMOCRACY , PALESTINIANS , POSTWAR OPERATIONS , MILITARY PLANNING , THEORY , MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN) , ISLAM , UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT , MILITARY HISTORY


Subject Categories : Sociology and Law
      Humanities and History
      Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE