Accession Number : ADA468820


Title :   Identification of Metabolic Routes and Catabolic Enzymes Involved in Phytoremediation of the Nitro-Substituted Explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX


Descriptive Note : Final technical rept.


Corporate Author : IOWA UNIV IOWA CITY DEPT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


Personal Author(s) : Schnoor, Jerald L ; Aken, Benoit Van ; Brentner, Laura B ; Tanaka, Sachiyo ; Flokstra, Brittany ; Yoon, Jong M


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a468820.pdf


Report Date : 31 Jul 2006


Pagination or Media Count : 71


Abstract : The manufacturing and testing of energetic compounds TNT, RDX and HMX for military purposes has led to widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in the United States and across Europe. The compounds have been shown to be toxic and are considered pollutants. Phytoremediation has been shown to provide a cost-effective alternative to classical technologies for cleaning up nitro-substituted explosive-contaminated sites, which generally requires excavation followed by incineration or land filling. This research project investigated potential detoxification pathways of these compounds once they are taken up by poplar trees. Poplar trees are a model plant for phytoremediation. They have been well studied in phytoremediation research and make good candidates because of their high transpiration rate, their ability to tap into ground water, their fast growth rates, and the information available as a result of the completion of the genome sequence for Populus trichocarpa. Based on the high level of contamination of testing and training ranges, due to periodic inputs of energetic materials, the only reliable in-situ biological treatment method is phytoremediation. This project provides a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and catabolic enzymes underlying phytotransformation of nitro-substituted explosives. The project evaluated effects of the toxicity of TNT, RDX and HMX in relation to poplar trees and poplar plant tissues as well as analyzing gene expression and transformation products from poplar degradation of these explosive compounds.


Descriptors :   *TOXICITY , *EXPLOSIVES , *GROUND WATER , *CONTAMINATION , *TNT , *HMX , *DETOXIFICATION , *RDX , *POLLUTANTS , EUROPE , LAND AREAS , GENOME , IN SITU ANALYSIS , CATABOLISM , MILITARY FACILITIES , EXCAVATION , METABOLISM , COMBUSTION , ENZYMES , MANUFACTURING , COST EFFECTIVENESS


Subject Categories : Ammunition and Explosives
      Solid Wastes Pollution and Control
      Water Pollution and Control


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE