Accession Number : ADA462999


Title :   Sleep and Alertness Management I: Pharmacokinetics of Hypnotics and Alertness Enhancers in Marmoset Monkeys (slaap- en alertheidsmanagement I: farmacokinetiek van slaap- en alertheidsverhogendemiddelen in marmosetapen)


Descriptive Note : I. H. /Philippens ;J. P. /Oostdijk ;K. /Pleijsier ;R. W. /Busker ;B. M. /Bouwman ;M. J. /Jongsma ;R. A. /Vanwersch


Corporate Author : TNO DEFENSE SECURITY AND SAFETY RIJSWIJK (NETHERLANDS)


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a462999.pdf


Report Date : Oct 2006


Pagination or Media Count : 55


Abstract : In earlier studies, possible solutions with direct usefulness in crew endurance plans were recommended; among the recommendations was the use of sleep-inducing and wake-promoting drugs. However, any pharmacological intervention may result in unwanted side-effects. Therefore, for sleep and alertness management in a military setting a combination of a short acting hypnotic drug and a fast acting stimulant drug are preferred. Human pharmacokinetics are usually well-known for approved drugs. However, if these drugs are to be used in a novel animal model setting (the marmoset), pharmacokinetics will be different and need to be re-assessed. Therefore, in this study, the pharmacokinetics of the short acting hypnotic drugs temazepam,%%zolpidem and zaleplon, and the alertness enhancers flumazenil, caffeine and modafinil were investigated to determine whether they fulfill the prerequisites of short and fast action to allow the use of these drugs in aiding sleep and enhancing alertness during military service. In order to attain this goal, sensitive and selective methods of sample preparation and analysis (HPLC and (IC-MS) were developed by using high quality separation and detection methods. The blood samples were obtained using a low-stress protocol which makes the use of an anesthetic unnecessary. This also prevents possible intervention with the anesthetic drug with the drugs under investigation.


Descriptors :   *SLEEP DEPRIVATION , *PHARMACOKINETICS , *PHARMACOLOGY , *MONKEYS , *HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES , *ENDURANCE(PHYSIOLOGY) , MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES) , SETTING(ADJUSTING) , METHODOLOGY , DETECTION , MANAGEMENT , NETHERLANDS , HUMANS , AUGMENTATION , SENSITIVITY , ANESTHETICS , SLEEP , CAFFEINE , BLOOD , ATTENTION , INTERVENTION , DRUGS , SHORT RANGE(TIME) , ENDURANCE(GENERAL) , CREWS , SAMPLING , MILITARY APPLICATIONS , SEPARATION , ANIMALS


Subject Categories : Psychology
      Stress Physiology
      Pharmacology


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE