Accession Number : ADA460239


Title :   A Century of Sapphire Crystal Growth


Descriptive Note : Conference paper


Corporate Author : NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND CHINA LAKE CA


Personal Author(s) : Harris, Daniel C


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a460239.pdf


Report Date : 17 May 2004


Pagination or Media Count : 74


Abstract : In Paris around 1890, A. V. L. Verneuil developed a flame fusion process to produce ruby and sapphire. By 1900 there was brisk demand for ruby manufactured by Verneuil's method, which was used with little alteration for 50 years. From 1932-1953, S. K. Popov in the Soviet Union established a capability for manufacturing high quality sapphire by the Verneuil process. In the U.S., under government contract during World War II, Linde Air Products Co. implemented the Verneuil process for making jewel bearings for precision instruments. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Czochralski process was implemented by Linde and its successor, Union Carbide, to make higher quality crystals for ruby lasers. Stimulated by a government contract for structural fibers in 1966, H. LaBelle invented edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG). The Saphikon company, owned now by Saint-Gobain, evolved from this effort. Stepanov independently developed edge-defined film-fed growth in the Soviet Union. In 1967 F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki at the Army Materials Research Lab grew sapphire by the heat exchanger method (HEM). Schmid later established Crystal Systems, Inc. around this technology. Rotem Industries, founded in Israel in 1969, perfected the growth of sapphire hemispheres and near-net-shape domes by gradient solidification. In the U.S., growth of near-net-shape sapphire domes was demonstrated by both the EFG and HEM methods in the 1980s but neither method became commercial. Today, domes in the U.S. are made by scooping sapphire boules with diamond-impregnated cutting tools. Commercial markets for sapphire, especially in the semiconductor industry, are healthy and growing at the dawn of the 21st century.


Descriptors :   *HEAT EXCHANGERS , *SAPPHIRE , *RUBY LASERS , *JEWEL BEARINGS , *CRYSTAL GROWTH , SYMPOSIA , MANUFACTURING , SUBSTRATES , PRECISION , IMPREGNATION , DIAMOND FILMS , CZOCHRALSKI CRYSTALS , GRADIENTS , WINDOWS , SEMICONDUCTORS , SOLIDIFICATION , REACTIVITIES , DIAMONDS


Subject Categories : Lasers and Masers
      Ceramics, Refractories and Glass
      Machinery and Tools
      Crystallography


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE