Accession Number : ADA452625


Title :   Technologies and Techniques for Early Warning Systems to Monitor and Evaluate Drinking Water Quality: A State-of-the-Art Review


Descriptive Note : Research rept.


Corporate Author : ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF WATER


Personal Author(s) : Hasan, Jafrul ; Goldbloom-Helzner, David ; Ichida, Audrey ; Rouse, Tina ; Gibson, Mark


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a452625.pdf


Report Date : 25 Aug 2005


Pagination or Media Count : 236


Abstract : Terrorist attacks have heightened concern about intentional threats to the U.S. water system, whether from physical destruction, computer interference, or chemical, microbial, or radioactive contamination. Such intentional contamination events can have a profound impact on public health and confidence in the nations water infrastructure. An Early Warning System (EWS) can be an a important tool to avoid or mitigate the impacts of an intentional contamination event in time to allow an effective local response that reduces or eliminates adverse impacts (ILSI, 1999). An integrated EWS includes sensors to detect the contaminant; systems to transmit, compile, and analyze data; links for communication and notification; and protocols for decision making and emergency response. The goal of this EWS document is to review the state-of-the-art technologies and techniques for integrated EWSs for drinking water infrastructure, particularly for finished water supplies and distribution systems. The report summarizes and evaluates current and emerging EWS technologies for identifying general categories of chemical, microbial, and radiological contaminants. It also identifies future directions, technical issues, and research gaps. Information was gathered from a variety of sources, including company information, government information, verification studies, field case studies, and expert opinions. The basis of this project is outlined in the Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan, Section 3.3e, which recommends testing and evaluation of drinking water and other EWSs, 1 focused on distribution systems. This study also supports the implementation of Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-9 even though the study was started before HSPD-9 was issued.


Descriptors :   *STATE OF THE ART , *DRINKING WATER , *WATER QUALITY , *HOMELAND SECURITY , *EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS , *RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION , LOGISTICS SUPPORT , NATIONS , EMERGENCIES , COMPUTERS , SECURITY , CASE STUDIES , PLANNING , INFRASTRUCTURE , WATER SUPPLIES , AWARENESS , TERRORISM , PUBLIC HEALTH , COMPANY LEVEL ORGANIZATIONS , ADVERSE CONDITIONS , INTERFERENCE , RESPONSE , DESTRUCTION , ATTACK , PHYSICAL PROPERTIES , IMPACT , MONITORING , DISTRIBUTION


Subject Categories : Civil Engineering
      Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare
      Water Pollution and Control
      Radiation Pollution and Control


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE