Accession Number : ADA417682


Title :   Military Transformation as a Competitive Systemic Process: The Case of Japan and the United States Between the World Wars


Descriptive Note : Final rept.


Corporate Author : CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA


Personal Author(s) : O'Neil, William D


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a417682.pdf


Report Date : Jun 2003


Pagination or Media Count : 238


Abstract : Specific individual military transformations achieve full significance only in the context of the broader processes of multiple interrelated transformations taking place in competition with those of one or more opponents. This study examines one historical case of broad systemic competitive processes to clarify the underlying dynamics: Japan and the United States between the two World Wars. The Armed Forces of both nations envisioned significant risk of war between themselves and sought, with varying focus and vigor, to prepare. These efforts are contrasted in operational concept, doctrine, and technology. Japanese forces achieved a very high level of excellence in tactical execution, a level that American forces did not initially match in many areas. Moreover, Japan entered the war with materiel that was in many areas equal if not superior to that of the United States in both quantity and quality. But the effort the United States had put into capabilities for planning and executing higher level operations frequently enabled its forces to pit strength against weakness, resulting in far faster erosion of Japan's defenses than the Japanese had anticipated. Thus, American transformation efforts brought advantages beyond those of simple weight of forces. (Approx. 870 refs.)


Descriptors :   *MILITARY HISTORY , *UNITED STATES , *COMPETITION , *JAPAN , *MILITARY MODERNIZATION , *TRANSFORMATIONS , FOREIGN POLICY , MARINE CORPS , FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY , LESSONS LEARNED , DEFENSE SYSTEMS , MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN) , MILITARY DOCTRINE , NAVY , CASE STUDIES , MILITARY CAPABILITIES , ARMY , INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS , MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES


Subject Categories : Military Forces and Organizations


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE