Accession Number : ADA409006


Title :   Toxic Warfare


Corporate Author : RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA


Personal Author(s) : Karasik, Theodore


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a409006.pdf


Report Date : Feb 2002


Pagination or Media Count : 67


Abstract : Recent events suggest that toxic warfare or the use of inexpensive chemicals and industrial waste in weaponry is on the rise. Accordingly, this report offers an initial analysis of the extent of the problem by bringing together what is currently known about toxic weapon use. Both state and nonstate actors (including insurgents and terrorists) are using toxic weapons, which provide an attractive asymmetrical option because they are inexpensive, are available in large quantities, are found in urban areas, and, perhaps most significantly, are not entirely secure from theft or diversion. The substances used to make these weapons have thus far been relegated to low-priority status under international law regulating the use of chemical weapons thereby making it easier for those interested in their use to gain access to them. This report offers historical examples, most drawn from the past decade, to illustrate where and how such weapons have been used. It also examines U.S. operations during toxic warfare and discusses current thinking in the United States about toxic weapons with respect to both military operations and homeland security.


Descriptors :   *CHEMICAL WARFARE , *TOXIC AGENTS , *HAZARDOUS MATERIALS , WEAPONS , TERRORISTS , MILITARY OPERATIONS , WARFARE , UNITED STATES , TOXICITY , GASES , CONTAMINANTS , CHEMICAL ORDNANCE , INTERNATIONAL LAW , WASTES(INDUSTRIAL) , INSURGENCY , HOMELAND SECURITY


Subject Categories : Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE