Accession Number : ADA379401


Title :   Sensitive and Rapid Identification of Biological Threat Agents


Descriptive Note : Journal article


Corporate Author : ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORT DETRICK MD


Personal Author(s) : Higgins, J A ; Ibrahim, M S ; Knauert, F K ; Ludwig, G V ; Kijek, T M ; Ezzell, J W ; Courtney, B C ; Henchal, E A


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a379401.pdf


Report Date : Dec 1999


Pagination or Media Count : 21


Abstract : The threat of biological warfare and bioterrorism has increased in the last two decades. Classical biological threats that were part of the now-defunct U.S. offensive program (terminated in 1969) included Bacillus anthracis, Botulinum toxin, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), Brucella suis(brucellosis), Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), rice blast, rye stem rust, and wheat stem rust. Most of these agents can be produced cheaply by aggressors and could have a larger impact on both military and civilian populations that other weapons of mass destruction. In the hands of a terrorist, these agents can cause great psychological harm and social disruption as well. Of the agents that can cause human disease, all except VEE and C. burnetii could be effectively transmitted through contaminated food and water. Classical methods for identifying biological agents that cause human disease have been used for more than 100 years and are well established. These methods rely on agent cultivation, taking between 3 and 30 days, and require experienced personnel working in a well-equipped laboratory. In order to achieve agent identification with a high level of confidence, a combination of state-of-the-art immunological and nucleic acid analyses methods, as well as classical microbiological approaches, are needed to identify unknown biological agents. Methods based on the immunomagnetic-electrochemiluminescence assay for antigen detection are among the most sensitive.


Descriptors :   *BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS , BACILLUS ANTHRACIS , BACTERIAL TOXINS , BIOLOGICAL DETECTION , BRUCELLA SUIS , BRUCELLOSIS , CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM , COXIELLA BURNETII , ENTEROTOXINS , FRANCISCELLA TULARENSIS , REPRINTS , STAPHYLOCOCCUS


Subject Categories : Microbiology
      Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE