Accession Number : ADA286183


Title :   Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments


Descriptive Note : Final rept. Jan 1993-Apr 1994


Corporate Author : ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES ALEXANDRIA VA


Personal Author(s) : Witmer, Bob G ; Singer, Michael F


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a286183.pdf


Report Date : Oct 1994


Pagination or Media Count : 53


Abstract : A primary argument for the efficacy of Virtual Environments (VE) applications is that the user is 'present' in the simulated environment. Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one environment (there) when physically in another environment (here). Presence may be based on external factors and internal tendencies that support both awareness of the current situation and the transition from the immediate physical location (here) to a remote or artificial environment (there). These factors are labeled as immersive because they may lead to the experience of presence. Some major immersive factors identified in current literature or hypothesized as contributing to presence are briefly reviewed in this report. These concepts and ideas have been used as the basis for two questionnaires. An Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire (ITQ) was developed to investigate possible correlates that may indicate an individual's tendency to experience more or less presence in artificial environments. The Presence Questionnaire (PQ) addresses different factors or features peculiar to the artificial environment that may affect the experience of presence, or the capability to immerse oneself, in that environment. The results of administration of these questionnaires, in conjunction with an experiment on the performance of basic tasks in VE, are presented. These results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution because of the small number of subjects involved. Analyses indicate reasonable reliability values for the ITQ and PQ. Presence, Simulation, Immersion, Simulator sickness, Virtual environments


Descriptors :   *COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION , *MEASUREMENT , SIMULATORS , ENVIRONMENTS , MANAGEMENT , RELIABILITY , INTERNAL , EXTERNAL , TRANSITIONS , QUESTIONNAIRES , IMMERSION , AWARENESS


Subject Categories : Computer Programming and Software
      Cybernetics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE