Accession Number : ADA266355


Title :   Trauma and Military Applications of Blood Substitutes


Descriptive Note : Final rept.


Corporate Author : LETTERMAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO CA


Personal Author(s) : Bowersox, J C ; Hess, J R


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a266355.pdf


Report Date : 14 Mar 1993


Pagination or Media Count : 16


Abstract : To review potential clinical uses of erythrocyte substitutes in treating military battlefield casualties, with specific emphasis on combat injury rates and wounding patterns, resuscitation doctrine and logistic requirements. We reviewed published medical literature and unclassified documents from the U.S. Armed Forces Blood Program. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death on the battlefield. Early intervention, with definitive treatment, could save up to 30% of soldiers who are killed in action or who die of wounds. Hemorrhage control and rapid volume expansion in appropriate casualties are the main priorities in prehospital resuscitation of battlefield casualties. The role for oxygen-carrying fluids in the initial management of military injuries is undefined; however, erythrocyte substitutes could reduce the logistic requirements for blood in field hospitals. In recent wars, outdating of stored blood resulted in 60-95% of units being discarded: 60% of 1. 3 million pints in Vietnam and 95% of 120,000 pints in the Persian Gulf War. Safety, long storage life, light unit weight, and tolerance to environmental extremes are all characteristics that are necessary for erythrocyte substitutes to extend or replace the use of stored blood in treating battlefield casualties. ... Blood, Combat, Casualties, Logistic requirements.


Descriptors :   *LOGISTICS , *WOUNDS AND INJURIES , *ERYTHROCYTES , *BLOOD SUBSTITUTES , CONTROL , WARFARE , MILITARY REQUIREMENTS , PERSIAN GULF , ARMY PERSONNEL , BATTLEFIELDS , PATTERNS , FLUIDS , BLOOD VOLUME , DOCTRINE , TRAUMA , VIETNAM , INTERVENTION , DEATH , HOSPITALS , STORAGE , EXPANSION , BLOOD STORAGE , HEMORRHAGE , RESUSCITATION , CASUALTIES , RATES , OXYGEN , DOCUMENTS , MILITARY MEDICINE , TOLERANCE , SAFETY


Subject Categories : Biochemistry
      Medicine and Medical Research
      Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE