Accession Number : ADA228559


Title :   Antifreeze Admixtures for Cold Regions Concreting: A Literature Review


Descriptive Note : Special rept.


Corporate Author : COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH


Personal Author(s) : Korhonen, Charles J


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a228559.pdf


Report Date : Sep 1990


Pagination or Media Count : 19


Abstract : In the United States, most winter concreting operations follow guidance provided by the American Concrete Institute on cold weather concreting (ACI 1988). This guidance was developed to ensure that fresh concrete placed at low temperatures will not freeze at an early age. The guidance recommends that fresh concrete be placed warm and on thawed surfaces. The concrete must then be kept warm by conserving its initial and internally developed heat by insulation or by heated enclosures. Protection must continue until the concrete gains sufficient strength to ensure safety. Although ACI recommends that protection times may be shortened by the use of rapid-setting cement, extra cement or accelerating admixtures, ACI does not recommend any other forms of freeze- protection. As a consequence, the high heating costs and the extra labor and materials often required to protect concrete from freezing can significantly add to the cost of concreting, especially in the Arctic. (js)


Descriptors :   *CEMENTS , UNITED STATES , LITERATURE SURVEYS , CONCRETE , MIXTURES , SURFACES , THERMAL INSULATION , LOW TEMPERATURE , HEATING , PROTECTION , THAWING , HEAT , ANTIFREEZES , FREEZING


Subject Categories : Ceramics, Refractories and Glass


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE