Accession Number : ADA208976


Title :   A Case for Criminal Enforcement of Federal Environmental Laws


Descriptive Note : Master's thesis


Corporate Author : NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA


Personal Author(s) : Wynne, Larry D


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a208976.pdf


Report Date : 19 Feb 1989


Pagination or Media Count : 89


Abstract : It is the purpose of this paper to provide appropriate legal and logical foundations to support the increase in the number of environmental cases resolved by criminal enforcement of federal statutes and to illustrate that because of its inherent simplicity and retributive/deterrent value, criminal enforcement, particularly against responsible individuals is an essential tool of environmental enforcement which should always be considered early in the enforcement process. We will - with the benefit of a brief consideration of the philosophy of environmental enforcement and a brief discussion of problems recently encountered in civil enforcement actions - examine the historical development and the present judicial climate surrounding the criminal enforcement provisions of the principle federal environmental statutes. We will then evaluate potential affirmative defenses and procedural and evidentiary concerns in an effort to demonstrate, through comparison to civil enforcement and analogy to enforcement under other general welfare statutes, that the perceptions and legal conclusions upon which the preferences for civil remedies have been based are largely illusionary. This conclusion will be supported by illustrations of three specific situations, those involving the midnight dumper, the unrepentant permit holder and federally owned or operated facilities, in which enforcement of federal criminal statutes is not merely the sanction of choice but the only effective sanction. Theses.


Descriptors :   *ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION , *LAW ENFORCEMENT , *FEDERAL LAW , FACILITIES , THESES , CLIMATE , GRAPHICS , ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT , WASTE DISPOSAL , PHILOSOPHY , CIVIL AFFAIRS , DETERRENCE , SOCIAL WELFARE , ANALOGIES , COMPARISON , CRIMINOLOGY , ENVIRONMENTS , TOOLS


Subject Categories : Government and Political Science
      Sociology and Law
      Air Pollution and Control
      Noise Pollution and Control
      Solid Wastes Pollution and Control
      Water Pollution and Control
      Pesticides Pollution and Control
      Radiation Pollution and Control
      Environmental Health and Safety


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE