Accession Number : AD1039597


Title :   Using Frozen Barriers for Containment of Contaminants


Descriptive Note : Technical Report


Corporate Author : Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Hanover United States


Personal Author(s) : Wagner,Anna M ; Yarmak Jr ,Edward


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1039597.pdf


Report Date : 21 Sep 2017


Pagination or Media Count : 56


Abstract : In the summer of 2011, a full-scale test of a frozen soil barrier was deployed at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory site in Fairbanks, AK. Hybrid thermosyphons, a more efficient cooling technology than conventional ground freezing, were used to create the frozen soil. The hybrid units were actively cooled by a 4.5 kilowatt refrigeration condensing unit for 62 days. A vertical frozen barrier of 9 meters (m) extending from a depth of 7 m below the surface to the ground surface was completed in 42 days, and the barrier was 1 m thick in 48 days. This frozen barrier installation has successfully shown that this technology can freeze the ground quickly. At the end of winter 2012, the barrier was approximately 3.8 m thick. This barrier thickness was maintained throughout the summer of 2012. The results showed only the top 0.5 m thawed even though the system was inactive for approximately a year. A cost analysis was performed to compare the cost of frozen barriers and slurry walls. It was concluded that construction and operating and maintenance costs of frozen barriers are on par with other barrier systems.


Descriptors :   water resources , freezing , case studies , waste disposal facilities , cost analysis , hazardous waste sites , water Purification , WATER POLLUTION , soil dynamics , groundwater , air temperature


Subject Categories : Water Pollution and Control


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE