Accession Number : AD0473335


Title :   THE EFFECT OF RADIONUCLIDE FRACTIONATION ON THE NORMALIZATION FACTOR FOR FALLOUT FIELDS


Corporate Author : NAVAL RADIOLOGICAL DEFENSE LAB SAN FRANCISCO CA


Personal Author(s) : Crocker, Glenn R


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/473335.pdf


Report Date : 04 Aug 1965


Pagination or Media Count : 48


Abstract : This report compares the normalization factor, r/hr per kt/sq mi, calculated for unfractionated fission products with the normalization factors calculated from field data for a near-surface silicate soil burst and a silicate soil cratering burst. The large discrepancies between predicted and observed values appear to be caused by a combination of radionuclide fractionation, ground roughness and instrument self-shielding, and gradient effects. Fractionation effects can cause a difference of a factor of five in the normalization factors for surface and cratering bursts, allowing about 50% reduction in radiation due to ground roughness and instrument self-shielding. Ionization-chamber measurements on field-collected samples are correlated with their degree of fractionation in this report, and a reasonable correspondence between the ionization-chamber readings and the exposure rates measured in the field is established. (Author)


Descriptors :   *FALLOUT , *FISSION PRODUCTS , NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS , SURFACE BURST , TEST METHODS , COMPATIBILITY , IONIZATION CHAMBERS , CRATERING , TIME , SEPARATION , EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY) , NUCLEAR PROPERTIES , RADIATION HAZARDS , RADIOCHEMISTRY , DECAY SCHEMES , GAMMA RAY SPECTRA , GAMMA EMISSION , THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS


Subject Categories : Radioactiv, Radioactive Wastes & Fission Prod


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE