Accession Number : AD0467335


Title :   SMOKE MARKER DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION STUDY


Descriptive Note : Technical rept.


Corporate Author : PICATINNY ARSENAL DOVER NJ FELTMAN RESEARCH LABS


Personal Author(s) : Weasner, M H ; Carlock, Jack


Full Text : https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/467335.pdf


Report Date : Aug 1965


Pagination or Media Count : 61


Abstract : A field study was conducted to determine the minimum volume and duration of colored smokes that could be detected, identified, and located by both ground and aerial observers. The distances from observers to smoke emission sites varied from approximately 500 to 10,000 meters. Re, yellow, green, violet, and white smokes were generated by initiating U. S. Army standard M8 and M18 smoke grenades. Nine volume-duration combinations of smoke were tested. Volume of smoke was controlled by initiating various numbers of grenades (one, two, or three)simultaneously. Duration of smoke emission was controlled by initiating various numbers of grenades in succession so as to give a continuous smoke. The larger volume-duration combinations (e.g., 2-2 and 3-3) yielded the highest rates of detection, color identification, and correct location of smoke emission sites. Observers located between 500 and 6000 meters from the smoke had higher rates of detection, identification, and location than did observers located at distances greater than 6000 meters. In terms of overall effectiveness, the best volume-duration combination is 2-3. White smoke yielded the highest rates of correct detection, correct identification, and correct location. Red was the next best color, while violet was the poorest.


Descriptors :   *COLORED SMOKES , AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE , COLORS , DETECTION , HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING , IDENTIFICATION , SURFACE TARGETS , TARGETS , TIME , VOLUME


Subject Categories : Pyrotechnics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE